Over the past two blog posts, I have explained why I always start my Bash scripts with set -o errexit and set -o nounset, respectively abbreviated as set -e and set -u. They can be combined as set -eu. In this final "mandatory Bash flags" post, I will explain the last option I always set on my Bash script. After the shebang line, I always type this line:

set -euo pipefail


This is a shorthand for the equivalent

set -o errexit
set -o nounset
set -o pipefail


As I have already explained the first two flags (errexit and nounset), this post will explain pipefail. Simply put, this flag instructs Bash to fail when a pipe fails. What's a pipe?

One of the most useful innovations of Unix was the "everything is a file" approach to IO. Pipes build upon that by presenting cheap, easy to use virtual files that are designed to be written to by one program while simultaneaously being read from by another program. This is easier to explain with a concrete example.

First, terminal programs that "write to the terminal" are actually, as far as they're concerned, writing to a file (because everything is a file). This file is commonly referred to as stdout, which is short for "standard output", or the default place where the output of the program should go. Programs also have a "standard input", which is where they read input from. In many cases, this defaults to whatever is being typed in the terminal, because that makes writing interactive programs easy.

But because input and output are treated, at the API level, as just writing to and reading from normal files, we can easily redirect them and, without changing anything to a program, have it read its input from a file rather than an interactive user session.

For example, the bc program is a simple interactive calculator:

$bc bc 1.06 Copyright 1991-1994, 1997, 1998, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. For details type warranty'. 1 + 1 2 5 * 18 90 ^D$


In this snippet, 1 + 1, 5 * 18 and ^D are typed interactively by the user. But because everything is a file, we can also redirect the "standard input" file reading operations of the bc program to read from a file. In Bash, this is done using the < character. For example:

$cat input_file 1 + 1 6 * 32$ bc < input_file
2
192
$ The code of the bc program itself does not need to know about the redirection (though in all fairness it can, and in this case it does, and uses that knowledge to decide not to print the welcome banner). Pipes are a special kind of file that allows the output of a program to directly serve as the input of another program. In a Bash shell, they are written with the | character (generally pronounced "the pipe character", appropriately enough). Why would that be useful? Here is a simple example. The du -h command will list all the files in the current directory along with their size in "human-readable form", which in this case means using appropriate units (k, M, G, etc.). It normally prints that listing to the terminal, which means it actually writes it to its "standard output" file. The sort -h program will read its input all the way to the end and then reprint it in ascending order; the -h option means it considers the first word on each line as a number in the same "human-readable form" as du -h (with no option, sort is plain alphabetical order on whole lines). Finally, the program tail -10 will read all of its input, and reprint only the last ten lines. Consequently, the Bash command du -h | sort -h | tail -10  will print the ten biggest files under the current directory (along with their size). Unfortunately, the default behaviour of Bash is to ignore failures in pipe chains: $ cat failed_pipe.sh
set -eu

echo "This works as it should" | tr a-z A-Z
echo "This should fail" | (cat; mistyped_command) | tr a-z A-Z
echo "We don't want to see this"
$bash failed_pipe.sh THIS WORKS AS IT SHOULD THIS SHOULD FAIL failed_pipe.sh: line 4: mistyped_command: command not found We don't want to see this$


Despite us setting -e, this does not fail on the mistyped_command, but instead keeps going. (Here, the (cat; mistyped_command) form is using a subshell to simulate a program that fails after having produced a little bit of output.)

A mental model for understanding why this is not failing is to think of -e as checking the state of the last command after each "full" command, i.e. roughly after each line. In this case, mistyped_command is just one part of the command, and while that one part fails, the overall line succeeds, because the return value of a chain of pipes is the exit code of its last component. In this case, tr a-z A-Z succeeds so the entire line is considered a success.

To prevent this, we need to set the pipefail flag. This will use the return code of the first failed command in a chain of pipes as the return code for the entire chain.

$cat pipe_failing.sh set -euo pipefail echo "This works as it should" | tr a-z A-Z echo "This should fail" | (cat; mistyped_command) | tr a-z A-Z echo "We don't want to see this"$ bash pipe_failing.sh
THIS WORKS AS IT SHOULD
THIS SHOULD FAIL

You may notice that this still printed THIS SHOULD FAIL. This is, in general, unavoidable: pipes are constantly passing data through, so tr gets the output of cat before the subshell fails on mistyped_command`.