Upon reading my previous post, a friend decided to try and write an implementation of merge sort in Bash, using subprocesses and file descriptors, to further his understanding. When he told me about it, I thought it was a great idea and gave it a try myself. In this post, I'll present a few of the things I learned in the process.

### Fifos

Because of the non-linear recursive structure of merge sort, it is not possible to express it using only anonymous pipes (the | operator presented in my previous post). We need one process writing to two pipes, and another process reading from the same two pipes.

The unix answer to this kind of use-case is known as a named pipe. A named pipe is created by the mkfifo command, which takes as argument the name (i.e. filesystem path) of the pipe to create. A named pipe can then be deleted using the usual rm command (it's just a file). As the name of the command to create them suggests, named pipes can also be referred to as fifos, for their "first in first out" behaviour.

Fifos are blocking: when one process tries to open a fifo for writing, it is blocked until there is another process ready to read from the fifo. Similarly, if a process tries to open a fifo for reading, it will block until another process opens it for writing.

Once a fifo is opened, there is still some blocking behaviour going on: fifos have a limited buffer size, and once the buffer is full, attempts to write will block until another process reads on the other end. Similarly, attempts to read an empty fifo will block if the fifo is empty but there is a process connected for writing.

A fifo is closed for reading when there is no more process that currently has the fifo open for writing. This will be important. Note that this means a fifo can be closed and then reopened.

### Bidirectional file descriptors

In my previous post, I mentioned the bidirectional file descriptor syntax, <>. For the recursive case of a merge sort, we need to create a child process that writes to two pipes, and then two child processes that read from those same pipes.1 It would seem natural at first to create a bidirectional file descriptor for the fifo, which could then be passed down to all three subprocesses.

However, this does not work. Bidirectional file descriptors are a smell in general as they probably indicate a convoluted data flow, but they also suffer from an issue that ends up breaking this use-case: they can never be closed.

In our case, this means that the process reading from the fifo will end up blocked on a read that never comes.

### Creating file descriptors in the current process

In my previous post I explained how to create file descriptors when launching a subprocess. Those file descriptors are then visible to the subprocess. However, sometimes you may want to create file descriptors in the current process, especially when working with fifos.

Recall that a fifo is closed when there is no more process with an open file handle on it. So if you write something like this:

mkfifo my_fifo
for i in $(seq 1 5); do echo$i > my_fifo
done


you end up opening and closing a file handle to my_fifo five times. This means that if you have a process reading on the other end, for things to work out it would need to also specifically know to open the fifo for reading five times, and, crucially, not to try and open it a sixth time. If either process tries to open the fifo one more time than the other one, that process will be blocked forever.

In this specific case, you can fix the issue by opening the file at the level of the for loop:

mkfifo my_fifo
for i in $(seq 1 5); do echo$i
done > my_fifo


and in many other cases you can work around the issue by surrounding your code in parentheses and using a subshell in the same way:

mkfifo my_fifo
(
for i in $(seq 1 5); do echo$i
done
echo finished
) > my_fifo


Because in both cases we only open the fifo for writing once, we can code the reader part to only open it for reading once, and, crucially, we can rely on the assumption that once the fifo gets closed, we're done reading.

This parenthesis-wrapping can get a bit cumbersome, though, and sometimes you really just want to say "keep this open until the end of the current script, or until I explicitly close it". For these cases, you can use the exec syntax:

mkfifo my_fifo
exec 3>my_fifo
for i in $(seq 1 5); do echo$i >& 3
done
echo finished >& 3


Now, the fifo is open for writing once, on the exec line, and will remain open until the current Bash process finishes or we explicitly close it with an equivalent exec 3>&-.

As it will obviously very quickly become very cumbersome to manage file descriptors as numbers manually, you can (if you're not stuck in the stone age, wink macOS) use the following syntax:

mkfifo my_fifo
exec {var}>my_fifo
for i in $(seq 1 5); do echo$i >& $var done echo finished >&$var


At first glance it may seem equivalent to just doing exec 3>my_fifo; var=3, but the above syntax has the added benefit that Bash will pick a new, unused file descriptor for you.

Note that the exec syntax can also be used to replace the default file descriptors:

exec 2>/var/log/my_program/$$/stderr  would redirect the stderr of the current process (and therefore all subprocesses, as they inherit it by default) to the given path. ($$ is a special variable that expands to the current pid, which should avoid clobbering if you run multiple instances at the same time.)

Note that because by default when you open a new shell you start with stdin, stdout and stderr all set to the terminal, using this in a live shell may lead to weird-looking (or just plain weird) behaviour.

### Debugging subprocesses

As a natural extension of the above, you can add a processing step to your default outputs. For example:

exec 2> >(sed 's/^/err: /' >&2)


redirects the stderr of the current process (and its child processes if they do not explicitly overwrite it) to a new process that itself redirects its standard output to the original standard error of the parent process, while applying a sed filter that adds err: at the start of each line.

So if you have a Bash script that calls itself and/or other Bash scripts, starting all of the files with something like:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

set -euo pipefail

exec 2> >(sed "s/^/$$- /" >&2)  will give you debug output that lets you easily track the nesting of subprocesses, along the lines of: 40245 - 40252 - 40256 - message  at the cost of running one extra subprocess per subprocess (the sed process in this example). ### Show me the code already! Alright. I will first explain each chunk of code one at a time, but I will provide the entire code at the end of this post for reference. But first, a fair warning: WARNING: This code has been written to further my understanding of Bash processes. You should absolutely not run it for any reason ever; if you need to sort something, use the sort utility. This code is extremely inefficient: it will create, per line to sort: • 2 named fifos • 2 anonymous pipes • at least 9 processes that I can count, though some of them short-lived On a sufficiently long input, this code has pretty much the same runtime behaviour as a fork bomb. ### Output We start with some output configuration. This code is very easy to get wrong in a way that just blocks without outputting anything, so it's very useful to have some debugging output. # format a line of log output format () { while IFS= read -r line; do if [ -n "{DEBUG:-}" ]; then # for Bash 3, replace BASHPID with$$
echo "${1:-}[$BASHPID] - $line" fi done } # debug output debug () { echo$@ >& 2
}


This expects every function to start with exec 2> >(format >&2), and will essentially give us dynamic scoping on our log prefix. The DEBUG flag is used to enable these logs, because they can be quite noisy.

On Bash 3 (macOS), $BASHPID is not available. In modern Bash versions, $BASHPID gives you the pid of the current Bash process. This is different from $$ in a few cases, most notably for our purposes here in the case of a subshell, where $$ keeps referrring to the parent pid.

### Splitting the input

The first useful piece of a merge sort is the split function, which takes a list as input and outputs two sublists of the same size.2 In our case, the input and both outputs are given as file descriptors opened respectively for reading and writing.

Note that this code explicitly expects file descriptors 3 and 4 to be used for output, and 0 to be used for input. This is fine here because the script is small enough and is in control of all file descriptors in play. If the script were more complex it may be worth using the {var}> syntax and passing the file descriptors as arguments.

Speaking of arguments, we may also note that this function does not take any argument as it gets all of its inputs through side-effects and hard-coding, and generates its outputs as side-effects. This will be true of subsequent functions too. However, it is worth pointing out that because this function is designed to be called in a subshell, the hard-coded file descriptors do not consitute global hardcoded values.

split () {
exec 2> >(format "split" >&2)

debug "start"
local item
local out=0
debug "put $((out+3)):$item"
echo $item >&$((out+3))
out=$(( ! out)) done debug "end" }  This is a fairly simple loop; (( ! out )) uses Bash boolean logic to alternate between 0 and 1. Remember that this will block on each attempt to write a line, which is why it needs to be run as a separate process. ### Merging two sorted lists The next piece of a merge sort is a function to merge two sorted lists. This is done by reading one element on each side, comparing them, outputting the smallest and replacing it (in the comparison pair) with the next one from the same list. Once we reach the end of one of the lists, we can just copy the other one over. The Bash code reads almost like the above paragraph: merge () { exec 2> >(format "merge" >&2) debug "start" local left right read -r -u 3 left || left="" read -r -u 4 right || right="" until [ -z "$left" ] || [ -z "$right" ]; do debug "comparing '$left' and '$right'" if [[ "$left" < "$right" ]]; then echo$left
read -r -u 3 left || left=""
else
echo $right read -r -u 4 right || right="" fi done if [ -z "$left" ]; then
echo $right cat <& 4 else echo$left
cat <& 3
fi
debug "end"
}


The notation:

read -r -u var || var=""


is used to ensure that, if read returns a non-zero value, presumably indicating a closed fifo, the result of the line is still a success (avoiding the -e behaviour) while also ensuring that the var variable is set (to an empty string, but still set, avoiding the -u behaviour).

This does mean that this code uses the empty string (identified by [ -z "" ]) as the sentinel value indicating the end of a list, and therefore means that we cannot sort a list that contains empty strings. I can live with that.

The use of double brackets [[ ]] lets us avoid having to escape the smaller-than comparison operator at the cost of portability. The sh version of the same comparison would be written [ "$left" \< "$right" ].

### Main function: setup

Now that we have the two subcomponents of a merge sort, we can work on the main function. First, because we're plugging our pieces together through side-effects, we need to do some setup.

    local left_pipe=$(mktemp -u) local right_pipe=$(mktemp -u)
trap "rm -f $left_pipe$right_pipe" EXIT
mkfifo $left_pipe$right_pipe


The mktemp utility creates files with randomly generated names meant as temporary storage (it does not, itself, take care of making them temporary, i.e. it does not delete them). By default, it creates files under /tmp, which gets cleaned up upon reboot. The -u flag runs it without side effects, i.e. it will generate a random file path under /tmp but will not create the corresponding file. mkfifo can then be used to create the two pipes we are going to need.

trap is used to catch, and react to, Unix signals. Bash introduces an additional "virtual" signal called EXIT. The syntax is pretty simple:

trap cmd signal


will evaluate cmd upon receiving signal. The EXIT signal is generated any time the Bash process exits, regardless of its status code, provided the Bash process has time to run its handler (i.e. it will run if a subprocess crashes and -e is set, or upon successful completion, or upon CTRL-C, or when otherwise receiving a TERM signal, or when explicitly calling exit, but not when receiving a KILL signal).

Importantly, it will be called upon termination of a subshell in modern Bash versions, but not on the 3.2 Bash version shipped with macOS.

Also note that trap is, syntactically, a normal Bash command, so in this case the first argument is fully expanded before being passed to trap, and will be further evaluated (as in eval) upon receiving the signal. In this case the distinction does not matter, because left_pipe and right_pipe are never reassigned, but in some cases it may be important to use single quotes instead, to defer the variable substitution to the time the signal is handled. As the string will be eval'd, you can also construct more complex commands (chaining commands with ;, using functions, etc.).

Finally, it is worth noting that the trap cmd signal call overwrites any previous handler for the signal signal. The EXIT handler defaults to nothing so in this case it does not matter, but in more complex scripts it could. You can print the current handler with trap -p EXIT, which you can use to add to the exit behaviour:

trap "rm -f new_file; $(trap -p EXIT)" EXIT  or to restore the previous behaviour later on: restore_trap=$(trap -p EXIT)
trap "echo 'custom behaviour'" EXIT
do_stuff
echo $first exit fi  If the first read fails, we are in the empty list case and immediately exit with no further output. The EXIT handler will take care of removing the fifos, and the process exiting process will take care of closing any remaining open file handler. If the first read succeeds but the second one fails, we are in almost exactly the same case, except that we need to print the one element we read before exiting. ### Main function: recursive case If we have at least two elements, we are in the recursive case and will defer to the merge function to sort them out.  cat | (cat <(echo$first) <(echo $second) - | split 3>$left_pipe 4> $right_pipe) & merge 3< <(msort <$left_pipe) 4< <(msort < $right_pipe) & # for bash 3, replace line above with line below #merge 3< <(./msort.sh <$left_pipe) 4< <(./msort.sh < $right_pipe) &  Only two lines here, but a lot to unpack. First off, in the case of Bash 3 (macOS), as explained previously the EXIT handler is not called for subshells and thus we will leak many fifos. The simplest workaround is to make the recursive calls explicit subprocesses instead of simple subshells. This will also make the $$ variable work as expected as a replacement for BASHPID. If you are bothered by the dependency on the file's own name, you can use 0 instead of ./msort.sh. On the first line, we first need to reconstruct the original input. To that end, we use cat (the nested one) with three inputs: two simple echo subshells and -, which means "read from your stdin". Note that the order of arguments matters to cat: if we put the - first, cat would output its stdin first, and tack on our two first inputs afterwards. (Which would not change the ultimate result in this case as this is still unsorted data.) The output of that cat command is processed by the split function, for which we set up the file descriptors 3 and 4 to write on the two fifos. We then use another cat process (the outer one this time) to redirect our own stdin to the stdin of the subshell. Finally, we instruct Bash not to wait on the subshell by using the asynchronous operator &. On the next line, we first set up two subshells that open the two fifos for reading, processes their content through a recursive call, and then use their outputs as the two inputs to a merge call. Note that when writing this code, I first wrote it as:  cat | (cat <(echo first) <(echo second) - | split 3> >(msort > left_pipe) 4> >(msort > right_pipe)) & merge 3< left_pipe 4< right_pipe &  At first glance, this may seem equivalent. However, this version is much less reliable. To understand why, one needs to carefully consider the order of operations. In this version, we create the entire (recursive) sort pipeline "before" the fifo. Recall that all fifo operations are blocking until there is something else on the other side. In this alternative, we create two more recursive processes before we start blocking on any fifo, which means that the runtime behaviour will require a lot more concurrent processes, consuming a lot more memory and increasing the chances of the OS giving up. In the final version presented above (and in the complete file below), generating new recursive processes happens on the other side of the fifo, i.e. the generation of new processes is limited by the speed at which the parent process can split up its input. ### Main function: clean-up Because we have started asynchronous children, there is a chance the current process may finish before them, resulting in orphan processes. To avoid this, we can wait for our subprocesses to properly terminate:  for job in (jobs -p); do debug "waiting on job" wait job done  Note that this will only wait on processes that have not finished before we reach this point, so counting those waiting lines is not a good way to count all the processes this creates. ### Full code Finally, here is the full code in all its glory: #!/usr/bin/env bash set -euo pipefail # format a line of log output format () { while IFS= read -r line; do if [ -n "{DEBUG:-}" ]; then # for Bash 3, replace BASHPID with$$ echo "${1:-}[$BASHPID] -$line"
fi
done
}

# debug output
debug () {
echo $@ >& 2 } # Reads stdin one line at a time and outputs alternatively on fd3 and fd4. split () { exec 2> >(format "split" >&2) debug "start" local item local out=0 while read -r item; do debug "put$((out+3)): $item" echo$item >& $((out+3)) out=$(( ! out))
done
debug "end"
}

# Reads lines from fd3 and fd4, which are expected to be sorted, and outputs a
# unified sorted list of lines on stdout.
merge () {
exec 2> >(format "merge" >&2)

debug "start"
local left right
read -r -u 3 left || left=""
read -r -u 4 right || right=""
until [ -z "$left" ] || [ -z "$right" ]; do
debug "comparing '$left' and '$right'"
if [[ "$left" < "$right" ]]; then
echo $left read -r -u 3 left || left="" else echo$right
read -r -u 4 right || right=""
fi
done
if [ -z "$left" ]; then echo$right
cat <& 4
else
echo $left cat <& 3 fi debug "end" } # Reads in a list of lines on stdin and outputs the sorted list on stdout. msort() { exec 2> >(format >&2) local left_pipe=$(mktemp -u)
local right_pipe=$(mktemp -u) trap "rm -f$left_pipe $right_pipe" EXIT mkfifo$left_pipe $right_pipe local first second if ! read -r first; then debug "base case: empty" exit fi if ! read -r second; then debug "base case: return$first"
echo $first exit fi debug "recursive case" cat | (cat <(echo$first) <(echo $second) - | split 3>$left_pipe 4> $right_pipe) & merge 3< <(msort <$left_pipe) 4< <(msort < $right_pipe) & # for bash 3, replace line above with line below #merge 3< <(./msort.sh <$left_pipe) 4< <(./msort.sh < $right_pipe) & for job in$(jobs -p); do
debug "waiting on $job" wait$job
done

debug "done"
}

if [[ "${BASH_SOURCE[0]}" == "${0}" ]]; then
msort
fi


These last three lines allow the script to be loaded as a library (source msort.sh) without triggering any side effect. I can't think of a good reason to do that with this particular script, but I think it's a good practice nonetheless.

And here is how you can test it:

$echo hello | ./msort.sh hello$ cat /usr/share/dict/words| shuf | head -10 | ./msort.sh
Cantabrize
Christophany
Cordaites
Isthmia
bacteriform
betrayal
circumambulator
divination
flannelbush
hexanitrate
$cat /usr/share/dict/words | shuf | head -200 | ./msort.sh | wc -l 200$ cat /usr/share/dict/words| shuf | head -200 | tee >(sort > unix_sort) | ./msort.sh > my_sort
$diff my_sort unix_sort$


As previously mentioned, this is an extremely inefficient program, so I would not recommend trying it with many more lines than 200. Note that diff prints all the differences, so the empty output here means we have sorted it the same way.

And, finally, a run with DEBUG output enabled:

$cat /usr/share/dict/words | shuf | head -4 | DEBUG=1 ./msort.sh [71104] - 71103 - recursive case [71104] - 71103 - waiting on 71108 [71104] - merge[71118] - 71103 - start [71104] - split[71122] - 71103 - start [71104] - split[71122] - 71103 - put 3: dividend [71104] - split[71122] - 71103 - put 4: confabulation [71104] - split[71122] - 71103 - put 3: penwomanship [71104] - split[71122] - 71103 - put 4: tinglass [71104] - split[71122] - 71103 - end [71104] - 71103 - waiting on 71110 [71104] - [71119] - 71103 - recursive case [71104] - [71120] - 71103 - recursive case [71104] - [71119] - 71103 - waiting on 71132 [71104] - [71120] - 71103 - waiting on 71133 [71104] - [71120] - merge[71154] - 71103 - start [71104] - [71119] - merge[71157] - 71103 - start [71104] - [71119] - split[71159] - 71103 - start [71104] - [71120] - split[71161] - 71103 - start [71104] - [71120] - split[71161] - 71103 - put 3: confabulation [71104] - [71120] - split[71161] - 71103 - put 4: tinglass [71104] - [71120] - split[71161] - 71103 - end [71104] - [71119] - split[71159] - 71103 - put 3: dividend [71104] - [71119] - split[71159] - 71103 - put 4: penwomanship [71104] - [71119] - split[71159] - 71103 - end [71104] - [71120] - 71103 - waiting on 71136 [71104] - [71119] - 71103 - waiting on 71137 [71104] - [71120] - [71153] - 71103 - base case: return confabulation [71104] - [71119] - [71152] - 71103 - base case: return dividend [71104] - [71119] - [71158] - 71103 - base case: return penwomanship [71104] - [71119] - merge[71157] - 71103 - comparing 'dividend' and 'penwomanship' confabulation [71104] - [71120] - [71160] - 71103 - base case: return tinglass [71104] - merge[71118] - 71103 - comparing 'dividend' and 'confabulation' dividend [71104] - [71120] - merge[71154] - 71103 - comparing 'confabulation' and 'tinglass' penwomanship [71104] - merge[71118] - 71103 - comparing 'dividend' and 'tinglass' [71104] - merge[71118] - 71103 - comparing 'penwomanship' and 'tinglass' [71104] - [71119] - merge[71157] - 71103 - end [71104] - [71119] - 71103 - done [71104] - [71120] - merge[71154] - 71103 - end [71104] - [71120] - 71103 - done tinglass [71104] - merge[71118] - 71103 - end [71104] - 71103 - done$


1. They need to be processes because of the blocking behaviour of named pipes.

2. Where "same size" means "size differing by at most one", for the case where the input list does not have an even number of elements.

Tags: bash