Last week, I presented the basics of a stack machine: what it is, what a basic stack language looks like, how to write a simple interpreter for it, and how to compile a higher-level language down to it.

This week, I had planned to talk about how to make such a stack machine fast, as last week's version was slow enough to raise questions about including the topic in a series about speed at all. This post will not be about that, though.

While trying to write a faster version, I inadvertently discovered that all of my Haskell benchmarking was completely broken, so that will be the topic for this week.

This series is based on Neil Mitchell's talk "Cheaply writing a fast interpeter". The talk compares a number of approaches to writing an interpreter and tries to find a good balance between complexity and interpreter overhead.

The following topics, while important, are out of scope:

• Producing assembly code: the definition of "cheap" that Neil uses in the talk is "maintainers are not required to know another language" (specifically assembly).
• Semantic optimizations (constant folding, algebraic transformations, etc.). The goal is to compare the interpretation overhead of various approaches, and semantic optimizations are considered orthogonal to that.
• JIT is not explicitly excluded in the talk, but it is completely absent. This is probably also a consequence of the "cheap" constraint.

### The first second clue

I completely missed the first clue. If you've read the previous parts of this series, and you haven't picked up on it, you've missed it too. It was there all along. The second clue, the first one I did notice, came after I finished writing what I expected to be a faster version of my stack machine interpreter from last week. Here is the (elided) result I got:

exec_stack (3 runs): 103.58 ms (34525 μs/run)
exec_stack (30 runs): 997.26 ms (33241 μs/run)
exec_stack_2 (3 runs): 162.25 ms (54082 μs/run)
exec_stack_2 (30 runs): 1.57 s (52458 μs/run)


In case you're unsure, stack_exec_2 was indeed the "faster" one. There's obviously always a chance that I screwed something up in the code itself, and whatever I did is not, in fact, faster, and this is a legitimate result. I was quite confident in the underlying principles, though. Much more than I was in my ability to benchmark Haskell, which I've mentioned before I very much am not. So I started thinking maybe something was a bit off.

### The third clue

I spent a bit of time playing with the code, and suddenly the results, for the exact same code, became:

[-13,-13,-13,-13,-13,-13,-13]
direct (3 runs): 1.00 us (0 μs/run)
direct (30 runs): 1.00 us (0 μs/run)
naive_ast_walk (3 runs): 0 ns (0 μs/run)
naive_ast_walk (30 runs): 1.00 us (0 μs/run)
twe_mon (3 runs): 0 ns (0 μs/run)
twe_mon (30 runs): 0 ns (0 μs/run)
compile_to_closure (3 runs): 0 ns (0 μs/run)
compile_to_closure (30 runs): 0 ns (0 μs/run)
twe_cont (3 runs): 1.00 us (0 μs/run)
twe_cont (30 runs): 1.00 us (0 μs/run)
exec_stack (3 runs): 1.00 us (0 μs/run)
exec_stack (30 runs): 0 ns (0 μs/run)
exec_stack_2 (3 runs): 82.00 us (27 μs/run)
exec_stack_2 (30 runs): 0 ns (0 μs/run)


So, yeah. That completely killed all of my confidence in my benchmarking harness. As soon as that was gone, I noticed the first clue: my Clojure code was way too fast compared to my Haskell code.

I know Clojure a lot better and I was (and still am) quite confident in those numbers. But Clojure compiles to JVM bytecode, and the JVM, while amazingly performant for a virtual machine, is still a virtual machine running on top of the CPU. The traditional wisdom is that each level of virtualization adds about a 10x slow down, and while the JVM can sometimes do a bit better than that thanks to aggressive JITing, it can't magically go faster than the underlying CPU.

I'd sort of hand-waved the discrepancy away by imagining that pehaps Haskell is not that great at purely numerical computations, what with all the focus on higher-order functions and types and stuff. But I really had not digged into it, and I should have. Looking just at the baseline, the numbers I reported in my first benchmarks pin Clojure code as close to four hundred times faster (2.7µs vs. 1068µs). With Haskell being a compiled language and Clojure running on top of a VM, this should definitely have raised some sort of alarm.

### Solving the new problem: why is it so fast?

So what's going on there? Haskell is either way too fast to measure at all, or it's way slower than is even remotely reasonable. At that point I had two sets of results that were both completely implausible in fundamentally different ways. This meant they could not have the same underlying cause.

Let's start with the second set of results (Haskell being too fast), as that's the more interesting explanation. First, remember that in my benchmarking code, I am not setting the units for the first set of numbers. So those zeroes are not merely the result of the reporting code rounding down: the harness is clearly able to report nanoseconds, and my CPU is running at 2.8GHz, so there should still be some number there. (The parenthesized number is fixed to microseconds, so getting a zero there is less worrisome).

The simplest explanation here is that my smarty-pants trick of making up functions of () instead of plain values was not smart enough to trick the compiler, and it still realized that all of these are indeed constant values. Given that even the first run does not seem to take any time, it seems likely it even inlines the values directly at compile time, which, outside of a benchmarking context, is quite nice.

In trying to verify this hypothesis, I first changed the types of all of my functions to be Int -> Int instead of () -> Int, but left them as \_ -> .... The compiler was not impressed, and kept inlining everything, despite the harness itself being modified to pass in a different integer for each iteration (the iteration counter).

But there's a limit to how smart the compiler can possibly be, thanks to Rice's theorem, so I knew it was possible to trick it. Let's take a look at the direct calculation, for example. Here is the code I had at that point:

direct :: Int -> Int
direct _ =
loop 100 1000
where
loop :: Int -> Int -> Int
loop x0 i =
if (0 == i)
then x0
else let x1 = x0 + 4 + x0 + 3
x2 = x1 + 2 + 4
in loop x2 (i - 1)


It's very easy for me to see that the input is not used. It's even quite easy for the compiler, given that it forces me to name it _. But I can make the code use the input without changing the semantics of the program: ultimately, I want to do a thousand iterations, but I don't really care that my counter ends up at zero. So here's the next version I tested:

direct :: Int -> Int
direct n =
loop 100 (n + 1000)
where
loop :: Int -> Int -> Int
loop x0 i =
if (n == i)
then x0
else let x1 = x0 + 4 + x0 + 3
x2 = x1 + 2 + 4
in loop x2 (i - 1)


Here, instead of starting my counter at 1000 and stopping at 0, I start it at n + 1000 and stop at n. With that change, I now had a more sensible result for that part of the benchmark:

direct (3 runs): 3.00 us (1 μs/run)
direct (30 runs): 20.00 us (0 μs/run)


This one is plausibly testing the limits of what our harness can actually measure, but the almost-10x relationship between running once and running three times is encouraging. With similar semantically-equivalent changes, I was able to get all of my code samples so far to produce reasonable results. I'm not going to show all of the new code, as the changes are fairly minor, but as a summary:

• For all of the approaches that use an environment, I know (but the compiler doesn't) that I only ever look at keys 0 and 1, so I made the functions start with an environment where the key 13 is set to the function argument.
• For the stack machine implementation, which doesn't use an environment, I started the stack with the input argument. Since the correct execution of a stack machine operating on valid code should never try to pop the stack past its starting point, starting with extra content is semantically neutral.

Neither of these is completely free from a performance perspective, but they both should be negligible overall.

### Solving the old problem: why was it so slow?

This brings us to the other problem: why were my original numbers so slow? This one is a lot less interesting and a little bit embarrassing, as that is totally just human error, i.e. me screwing up.

I come from the Clojure world, where I can develop using a repl. This is the best development environment I've found so far, so when I started learning Haskell I naturally tried to find something equivalent. The nature of the language make an exact equivalent impossible, but there is a reasonably close approximation: ghcid.

When developing Haskell code, I keep a window open with this code running:

stack exec -- ghcid -c 'stack ghci' -T 'main'


The stack exec -- part in the beginning sets the context, so I'm running the correct ghcid version for the current project. The -c 'stack ghci' part instructs ghcid itself to use stack to find the right version (and configuration) of GHC for the current project. Finally, the -T main bit tells ghcid to run the main function as a test.

If you don't know ghcid, the gist of it is that it will watch the current folder for changes and, on each change, rerun the compiler and print any error message, or "All good". This is a big part of leveraging the compiler in active development, as it allows the compiler to guide refactorings.

The T option is meant for running unit tests: if, after a change, everything does compile correctly, instead of printing All good ghcid will execute the (now compiled) IO value passed in as its argument.

All of the numbers I was looking at thus far come from that. The issue here is that ghcid is designed for fast feedback during development, and as such is using ghci, the incremental/interactive version of GHC. This is great for error reporting, but it's not actually doing "real" compilation, and is thus useless for benchmarking.

Running the code "independently" with

stack run


actually invokes the compiler to build the program (if needed) and then runs the resulting, properly compiled executable, and that's what I somewhat accidentally did for the first time in this project last week.

### New conclusions

So, new numbers. What do they tell us? First, here they are:

[-13,-13,-13,-13,-13,-13,-13,-13]
direct (30 runs): 19.00 us (0 μs/run)
direct (3000 runs): 2.11 ms (0 μs/run)
naive_ast_walk (30 runs): 79.74 ms (2657 μs/run)
naive_ast_walk (3000 runs): 9.38 s (3125 μs/run)
twe_mon (30 runs): 62.18 ms (2072 μs/run)
twe_mon (3000 runs): 7.34 s (2445 μs/run)
compile_to_closure (30 runs): 73.02 ms (2434 μs/run)
compile_to_closure (3000 runs): 8.44 s (2814 μs/run)
twe_cont (30 runs): 48.92 ms (1630 μs/run)
twe_cont (3000 runs): 4.03 s (1343 μs/run)
exec_stack (30 runs): 83.99 ms (2799 μs/run)
exec_stack (3000 runs): 8.32 s (2774 μs/run)
exec_stack_2 (30 runs): 4.01 ms (133 μs/run)
exec_stack_2 (3000 runs): 290.42 ms (96 μs/run)


Compared to previous benchmarking results, we can note that:

• The interpretation overhead of tree walking vs. the baseline is now in the 3000, which is a lot larger than what we had before.
• The monadic approach is now about 30% faster than the direct tree-walking, whereas it had previously been measured as about twice as slow. This makes the monadic approach a lot more viable, though the code complexity still does not warrant it in this case in my opinion.
• Compiling to closures still does not bring much of a benefit.
• The continuations approach is still the fastest in the simple tree walking category.
• The naive stack approach described last week is no longer three times slower. It's still quite a bit of extra complexity for no apparent speed improvement, though.

And, as expected, the "faster" stack machine approach, which I'll be covering in the next post, is now reasonably faster than even the fastest tree-walking approach (twe_cont).

Tags: cheap interpreter