A couple years ago, I decided to learn Haskell. This led me to develop an interest for lambda calculus, interpreters, and laziness. (And monads, in general as well as in Clojure, but that is less relevant for today's topic.) While researching those topics, I came across a paper meshing all those topics together by explaining a nice technique to implement embedded functional languages in Haskell. On the face of it, the technique presented seems to rely so heavily on Haskell language features — primarily whole-language laziness — that it looks like it would be hard to implement in any other language.

This, of course, looked like a challenge to me, and I immediately started wondering how hard it would be to implement the same technique in Clojure. Then I got distracted and left that problem alone for a few months. That is, until I got a bit of an epiphany while playing with prime numbers two weeks ago.

But first, let's take a look at the paper itself.

### The Problem

The paper is entitled "Using Circular Programs for Higher-Order Syntax"; as may be expected, the problem it tries to solve is representing "higher-order syntax", and the solution the authors came up with relies on "circular programs". Those terms may not be immediately familiar, so let's break that down.

At the core of the problem is lambda calculus. Without going into all of the details, the idea here is to simplify the notion of a programming language to the extreme, and specifically to the point where the language is composed of only three forms: variables, single-argument function definitions, and function applications.

It turns out these three forms are enough to form a complete model of computation, but that's not quite what I want to focus on here. For our purposes today, it is enough that:

• We agree any reasonable "functional language" we may want to implement as an embedded language will have functions.
• Higher-order syntax is a nice API to define programs in that language (more on that later).
• It turns out there is a bit of a thorny issue to solve there, and this minimal language is enough to illustrate it.

As we'll want to write some sort of interpreter for our embedded language, we should define an abstract syntax for it. Let's go for:

;; a variable, identified by a number
[:var 1]
;; a function definition (identity)
[:abs 2 [:var 2]]
;; a function application applying identity to a free variable
[:app [:abs 1 [:var 1]] [:var 2]]


Note that, semantically, that last line has the same meaning as:

[:app [:abs 2 [:var 2]] [:var 2]]


because of lexical scope, but now, as a human reader, we have to realize that there are two different variables named 2 at play. Also note that we could have chosen to use strings for variable names instead of numbers, and probably would in a real context, but for our purposes here all we need is equality checks and numbers are the simplest way to get that.

If we want to write more complex expressions, it can become a bit tedious. For example, here is the + operator in Church encoding:

[:abs 0
[:abs 1
[:abs 2
[:abs 3
[:app [:app [:var 0] [:var 2]]
[:app [:app [:var 1] [:var 2]]
[:var 3]]]]]]]


Now, part of the tediousness comes from the language itself: by defining such a small core language, we inevitably get some verbosity in defining useful values.

But part of the tediousness also comes from the use of a data representation of what should naturally be functions. Moreover, there is an inherent opportunity for human error in writing down those expressions, as it is easy to mistype a variable name.

To address those issues, we can use "higher-order syntax", which is a fancy way of saying let's use our host language functions to represent our embedded language functions. This way, we get our host language semantics for free when it comes to checking our argument names (and possibly types) and dealing with shadowing.

This means defining two functions, abs and app, such that the above can be written:

(abs (fn [m]
(abs (fn [n]
(abs (fn [f]
(abs (fn [x]
(app (app m f)
(app (app n f)
x))))))))))


which is still as complicated in terms of the logic of this function (because Church encoding is complicated), but is syntactically much nicer, and arguably less error-prone even in a language with no static type-checking.

And so the problem the paper sets out to solve is: can we define abs and app with the presented API and reasonable performance?

Specifically, the paper uses Haskell, so, for clarity, these are the types in play:

data Exp = Var Int      --  ex: [:var 1]
| Abs Int Exp  --  ex: [:abs 2 [:var 2]]
| App Exp Exp  --  ex: [:app [:abs 2 [:var 2]] [:var 2]]

app :: Exp -> Exp -> Exp
abs :: (Exp -> Exp) -> Exp


If you're not familiar with Haskell, those last two lines mean that app is a function of two Exp arguments and returns another Exp argument, while abs is a function that takes a single argument which is itself a function from Exp to Exp, and returns an Exp.

At this point, it's important to realize that we're not trying to calculate anything: app and abs are just meant as syntactic sugar to constructExp values.

In other words, we could expect app to just be (fn [e1 e2] [:app e1 e2]). The implementation of abs is less obvious, as it needs to introduce names for the Abs arguments, and that's the problem the paper tackles.

### Why abs is non-trivial

The paper remains a bit more abstract in the representation of variable names, and keeps them as "any sufficiently large, totally ordered set"; in this blog, I'll just represent them as integers. Any other countable (or smaller), ordered type can be trivially mapped to integers as a separate step that is of no interest to this discussion. The operations we use on that type are zero, a value representing the "minimal" name (in our case, 0), succ, an operation that takes a name and returns the "next" one (inc), and "⊔", an operation that takes two names are returns the bigger one (max).

If one were to sketch an implementation for abs, one would likely start with something like:

(defn abs
[f]
(let [n (generate-name f)]
[:abs n (f [:var n])]))


Maybe it's not obvious that we need to pass the function f to generate-name, and maybe we actually don't. At this point, I'm just sketching, and f is the only bit of information I do have access to, so I might as well assume I'll need to use it somehow.

What are the constraints on choosing a value for n? From the semantics of lexical binding, we can deduce that it needs to:

1. Not capture free variables in the body of the function, (f [:var n]).
2. Should not be captured by other bindings in the body.

What does that mean? First, let's start with an example of 1. Say the body of the function is:

[:app [:var ???] [:var 2]]


where ??? is where our generated n should come into play. So we're going to generate an abstraction of the form:

[:abs n [:app [:var n] [:var 2]]]


Hopefully, it is pretty obvious that the meaning of this abstraction will be very different if we set n to 2 than if we set n to any other number: if we set it to 2, we capture the free variable, and end up with a function that applies its argument to itself, rather than a function that applies its argument to an externally-scoped value.

Now, where could that free [:var 2] come from? If we construct expressions only using app and abs, at first glance it looks like we cannot generate a free variable. And that is true, at the level of a complete expression. But when constructing an expression, subexpressions can (and often will) have free variables.

For example, on our + operator above, when considering the abstraction that introduces the binding 3, all three other bindings look like free variables to the body of that abstraction.

The second error case we want to avoid is to generate a binding that then gets captured by a function "above" in the call stack. The paper goes into that in more details, but the gist of it is that if we construct our name generation to look "down" and only generate "bigger" names, and this is the only API we ever use to create expressions, then that works out.

Having to look "down" poses an obvious problem: because what we give abs is a function, the only way it has of looking at the expression of its body is to actually apply the function and look at the result. Continuing with our example, we're basically in a situation where we're trying to solve for:

(abs (fn [n] [:app [:var n] [:var 2]]))


and it seems like the only way for abs to even see the expression is to pick a number at random and execute the function. If we picked something other than 2, that's great, but if we picked 2, we're screwed. Maybe we can run it a bunch of times and see what values are stable?

The paper briefly considers the option of threading an infinite list of names through (for which a monadic implementation may be useful), but discard it as a non-starter, because that would require changing the base type of expressions, i.e. the arguments and return types of the app and abs functions now need to be wrapped in some way.

### Speculative naming

The first real solution to the problem that the paper presents is a more disciplined approach to our "let's try random values and see what happens" approach. The core idea is to decide that, in the final expression we produce, the name 0 will never be used.

Under that assumption, the implementation is fairly straightforward:

(defn app
[e1 e2]
[:app e1 e2])

(defn exp-max
[exp]
(match exp ;; see core.match
[:var n] n
[:app e1 e2] (max (exp-max e1)
(exp-max e2))
[:abs _ e] (exp-max e)))

(defn abs
[f]
(let [n (inc (exp-max (f [:var 0])))]
[:abs n (f [:var n])]))


In other words, we first generate the expression while pretending we're going to name the current variable 0, then look at the expression, walking through the entire thing in order to find out what the highest variable is, and then generate our expression again using a higher variable than that.

This works, but we call f twice at each level, meaning it's exponential in the nesting level of our function definitions. That's obviously not ideal.

The solution presented in the paper is to implement the above using what the authors call circular programming:

exp_max :: Exp -> Int
exp_max (Var _) = 0 -- not looking at the variable anymore
exp_max (App f a) = max (exp_max f) (exp_max a)
exp_max (Abs n a) = max n (exp_max a) -- we now look at n here

app :: Exp -> Exp -> Exp
app = App

abs :: (Exp -> Exp) -> Exp
abs f = Abs n body
where
body = f (Var n)       -- Note that body depends on n ...
n = 1 + (exp_max body) -- ... and n depends on body


The "circular" part refers to the fact that the definition of body depends on n, while at the same time the definition of n depends on body. It is possible to write this in Haskell because the language is lazy. The computation actually works because there actually exists a sequence of computation here that ends up defining both body and n without triggering an infinite loop.

The main "trick" here is to rewrite exp-max to look at the bindings of abstractions, but, crucially, not look at variables. Trying to write the same abs with our previous definition of exp-max would result in an infinite loop.

The paper goes on to prove that this method works (i.e. it produces "safe" bindings) and that one can improve the complexity class from quadratic to linear by tweaking exp_max, but in this post I am not interested in that. What I am interested in is whether this can be made to work in Clojure.

### Circular programming in Clojure

A word-for-word translation would not work, because Clojure's let bindings are not recursive:

;; DOES NOT COMPILE
(defn abs
[f]
(let [body (f [:var n])
n (inc (exp-max body))]
[:abs n body]))


will, if we're lucky, fail to compile with a message along the lines of:

Unable to resolve symbol: n in this context


If we're not lucky, n may get resolved to some global name if we happen to have a var named n in the current namespace (or, more likely, if we decided to name this variable differently).

I mentioned in the introduction that this post was inspired by my rediscovery of promises last week, so it should come as no surprise that the solution I'm going to present here relies on promises.

In a way, a Clojure promise for an integer is very similar to a Haskell binding for an integer: in both cases, it does not really matter exactly when the value is computed, so long as it is present when we actually need it.1

Unfortunately, we can't quite get all the way to the same level as Haskell: because Haskell has pervasive laziness, there is no difference between an integer and a promise for an integer. In Clojure, though, those are very different things, and promises do need to be explicitly dereferenced.

This means that we have no choice but to change our underlying type representation to account for promises, and that any code using the (implicit) "exp" type has to know about them. (Or does it? More on that later.) Assuming that's an acceptable cost, the implementation looks something like:

(defn app
[e1 e2]
[:app e1 e2])

(defn exp-max
[e]
(match e ;; see core.match
[:var _] 0
[:app e1 e2] (max (exp-max e1) (exp-max e2))
[:abs n _] @n)) ;; this is the quadratic -> linear change

(defn abs
[f]
(let [n (promise)
body (f [:var n])]
(deliver n (inc (exp-max body)))
[:abs n body]))


The evaluation of abs works because exp-max never looks at the value of a :var; specifically, because the promise in a var never gets dereferenced.

One could wonder what promise gives us here that we wouldn't get from using atom, var or volatile. While those could work just as well, promise implies that the value will only ever be set once, and that's a useful thing to know for people reading such code.

This is especially important here because the promises do end up being part of the "api" (i.e. the data representation) of the language.

At this point, one might try to look for ways to get rid of the promises in the final representation. I do not think this is possible. We could easily remove them from :abs forms, by just changing the return expression of the abs function to:

[:abs @n body]


and that would work, but there is no way to get rid of the promises in :var forms without calling f again, and that leads us back to an exponential complexity. And if we're going to have them in var forms, I believe it's more consistent to keep them in :abs forms too.

We could also just post-process the complete forms to get rid of the promises:

(defn printable-exp
[exp]
(match exp
[:var p] [:var @p]
[:app e1 e2] [:app (printable-exp e1) (printable-exp e2)]
[:abs p b] [:abs @p (printable-exp b)]))

t.core=> (printable-exp (abs (fn [m]
#_=>                  (abs (fn [n]
#_=>                    (abs (fn [f]
#_=>                      (abs (fn [x]
#_=>                        (app (app m f)
#_=>                             (app (app n f)
#_=>                                  x)))))))))))
[:abs 4
[:abs 3
[:abs 2
[:abs 1
[:app [:app [:var 4] [:var 2]]
[:app [:app [:var 3] [:var 2]]
[:var 1]]]]]]]
t.core=>


but I would recommend doing that only for printing, and actually restoring the promises on reading, as otherwise one might end up with mixed forms.

### Conclusion

Haskell obviously has an edge here, as it allows us to work with circular values without any extra ceremony. In Clojure, where strict evaluation is the default, we have to be a bit more explicit about introducing, and resolving, lazy values (circular or otherwise).

It's a bit annoying, in principle, that this implementation choice leaks to the value domain and may have to be taken into account by other code manipulating expressions. One could observe, though, that we started this with the desire to assign a unique name for each variable, and that the only operation we really need to support on variable names is =.

It turns out that Clojure promises (like other Clojure mutable cells) compare for equality with identical?, meaning that, by construction, we do get a new, unique value for each binding using this technique, and "client" code could simply use equality checks and not care about how the variable names print. This means that we have switched our domain of names from integers to, essentially, Java memory pointers, but apart from that it should all work out.

Pushing this idea further, one could actually define abs along the lines of:

(defn abs
[f]
(let [n (promise)]
[:abs n (f [:var n])]))


and any code that only relies on equality of variable names would work with that directly. The mapping of promises to integers (or other name domain) could then be done at printing time. Not that I'd recommend it, but it does result in a faster, arguably more lazy, abs implementation than the Haskell one.

1. Haskell bindings are arguably closer to Clojure delays, but delay does not help in defining circular sets of variables.

Tags: clojure papers